Relative dating of rocks ppt
A mineral is a naturally-occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties.
A rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids. Petrology is the scientific study of rocks while the the study of minerals is called mineralogy. A main determining factor in the formation of minerals in a rock mass is the chemical composition of the mass, for a certain mineral can be formed only when the necessary elements are present in the rock.
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Calcite is most common in limestones, as these consist essentially of calcium carbonate; quartz is common in sandstones and in certain igneous rocks like granite which contain a high percentage of silica.
Two rock masses may have very much the same bulk composition and yet consist of entirely different assemblages of minerals.
If, in the year AD 1600, you had asked an educated European how old the planet Earth was and to recount its history he would have said that it was about 6000 years old and that its ancient history was given by the biblical account in Genesis.
If you asked the same question of an educated European in AD 1900 you would have received a quite different answer.
Igneous rocks are formed when molten magma cools and are divided into two main categories: plutonic rock and volcanic.
All these variations also form standards for classifying them in broad categories.
Rocks are classified by their mineral and chemical composition, by the texture of the constituent particles and by the processes that formed them.
From the mapped field relationships, it is a simple matter to work out a geological cross-section and the relative timing of the geologic events.
His geological cross-section may look something like Figure 2.